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And the man is the owner. Here, if a woman does not behave properly, her husband, father, and brother are responsible.

According to our tradition, if a woman fools around, her family members kill her That's how it happens, a brother kills his sister or a husband kills his wife As a president, I cannot allow for them to kill.

So, let women not wear shorts On July 9, , Russian newspaper Novaya Gazeta reported that a number of people were subject to an extrajudicial execution on the night of January 26, It published 27 names of the people known to be dead, but stressed that the list is "not all [of those killed]"; the newspaper asserted that 50 people may have been killed in the execution.

In , it was reported by Novaya Gazeta and human rights groups that Chechen authorities had allegedly set up concentration camps, one of which is in Argun , where gay men are interrogated and subjected to physical violence.

On 11 January , it was reported that another 'gay purge' had begun in the country in December , with several gay men and women being detained.

During the war, the Chechen economy fell apart. The economic situation in Chechnya has improved considerably since According to the New York Times , major efforts to rebuild Grozny have been made, and improvements in the political situation have led some officials to consider setting up a tourism industry, though there are claims that construction workers are being irregularly paid and that poor people have been displaced.

Total revenue of the budget of Chechnya for was Of these, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For former unrecognized Chechen state, see Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.

First-level administrative division of Russia. Republic in North Caucasian, Russia. Coat of arms. Main article: History of Chechnya.

Part of a series on the. Main article: Vainakh origin hypotheses. Main article: Caucasian War. The neutrality of this section is disputed.

Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. February Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Main article: Administrative divisions of Chechnya. Largest cities or towns in Chechnya Russian Census. Main article: Politics of Chechnya. President of the Russian Federation.

Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, Retrieved January 23, June 3, Retrieved January 19, Retrieved August 27, From Chechnya to Syria.

Retrieved June 10, Archived from the original on January 21, Retrieved December 8, On the origin of the Vainakhs".

Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved November 3, Archived from the original PDF on February 25, March 1, The Chechens: a handbook 1st ed.

Retrieved August 14, History of Ingush nation. Archived from the original on February 17, Retrieved March 14, Zayats Archived from the original on May 2, August 29, Archived from the original on December 30, Retrieved Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose.

Retrieved December 25, Iran at War: — Retrieved 25 December November 28, Russian Imperialism: Development and Crisis.

December 10, Archived from the original on February 22, Retrieved February 8, June 24, Archived from the original on February 23, Archived from the original on February 21, Russia: Chechnya.

Microsoft Encarta Microsoft Corporation. BBC News. February 23, Retrieved April 19, RIA Novosti. Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization.

Page April 21, Retrieved January 1, Archived from the original on November 17, Chechnya: Life in a War-Torn Society.

Berkeley: University of California Press, , p. Retrieved October 10, New York: W. October 27, Retrieved May 30, Daily Telegraph.

Retrieved April 22, The Economist. Archived from the original on April 4, The Independent. The Jamestown Foundation. April 16, Retrieved April 14, Retrieved March 12, Archived from the original on January 7, Retrieved May 12, Orlov; V.

Archived from the original on February 9, Retrieved October 17, Retrieved on July 17, Moscow News. May 8, December 19, Caucasus Times poll in Russian.

Caucasus Times. May 16, Retrieved April 10, Religion and Politics in Russia: A Reader.

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According to Leonti Mroveli , the 11th-century Georgian chronicler, the word Caucasian is derived from the Vainakh ancestor Kavkas.

The Vainakhs are the ancient natives of the Caucasus. It is noteworthy, that according to the genealogical table drawn up by Leonti Mroveli, the legendary forefather of the Vainakhs was "Kavkas", hence the name Kavkasians, one of the ethnicons met in the ancient Georgian written sources, signifying the ancestors of the Chechens and Ingush.

As appears from the above, the Vainakhs, at least by name, are presented as the most "Caucasian" people of all the Caucasians Caucasus — Kavkas — Kavkasians in the Georgian historical tradition.

American linguist Johanna Nichols "has used language to connect the modern people of the Caucasus region to the ancient farmers of the Fertile Crescent" and her research suggests that "farmers of the region were proto-Nakh-Daghestanians.

The Caucasian Epipaleolithic and early Caucasian Neolithic era, saw the introduction of agriculture , irrigation , and the domestication of animals in the region.

Settlements made out of clay bricks were discovered in the plains. Historically Magas was located at approximately the same place on which the new capital of Ingushetia is now built" — D.

Zayats [28]. In —, there was frequent warfare between the Alans , Tamerlan , Tokhtamysh , culminating in the Battle of the Terek River. The Alan tribes built fortresses, castles, and defensive walls protecting the mountains from the invaders.

Part of the lowland tribes were occupied by Mongols. The insurgency against Mongols began. In the Jordanian historian Abdul-Ghani Khassan presented a photocopy from old Arabic scripts claiming that Alania was in Chechnya and Ingushetia, and the document from Alanian historian Azdin Vazzar — who claimed to be from Nokhcho Chechen tribe of Alania.

The 16th century saw the first Russian involvement in the Caucasus. Ivan the Terrible married Temryuk's daughter Maria Temryukovna.

An alliance was formed to gain the ground in the central Caucasus for the expanding Tsardom of Russia against stubborn Vainakh defenders. Chechnya was a nation in the Northern Caucasus that fought against foreign rule continually since the 15th century.

The Chechens converted over the next few centuries to Sunni Islam , as Islam was associated with resistance to Russian encroachment. Notable in Chechen history, this particular Russo-Persian War marked the first military encounter between Imperial Russia and the Vainakh.

Russian forces succeeded in taking much of the Caucasian territories from Iran for several years. As the Russians took control of the Caspian corridor and moved into Persian-ruled Dagestan , Peter's forces ran into mountain tribes.

Peter sent a cavalry force to subdue them, but the Chechens routed them. The name Chechen was however already used since as early as According to this treaty, Kartl-Kakheti received protection from Russia, and Georgia abjured any dependence on Iran.

The Russian Empire used Christianity to justify its conquests, allowing Islam to spread widely because it positioned itself as the religion of liberation from tsardom, which viewed Nakh tribes as "bandits".

Mansur hoped to establish a Transcaucasus Islamic state under shari'a law. He was unable to fully achieve this because in the course of the war he was betrayed by the Ottomans , handed over to Russians, and executed in Following the forced ceding of the current territories of Dagestan, most of Azerbaijan , and Georgia by Persia to Russia, following the Russo-Persian War — and its resultant Treaty of Gulistan , Russia significantly widened its foothold in the Caucasus at the expense of Persia.

The resistance of the Nakh tribes never ended and was a fertile ground for a new Muslim- Avar commander, Imam Shamil , who fought against the Russians from to see Murid War.

In , Shamil was captured by Russians at aul Gunib. Shamil left Boysangur Benoiski , [38] a Chechen with one arm, one eye, and one leg, in charge of command at Gunib.

Benoiski broke through the siege and continued to fight Russia for another two years until he was captured and killed by Russians.

The Russian tsar hoped that by sparing the life of Shamil, the resistance in the North Caucasus would stop, but it did not. Russia began to use a colonization tactic by destroying Nakh settlements and building Cossack defense lines in the lowlands.

The Cossacks suffered defeat after defeat and were constantly attacked by mountaineers, who were robbing them of food and weaponry.

The tsarists' regime used a different approach at the end of the s. It weakened the resistance which went from open warfare to insurgent warfare. One of the notable Chechen resistance fighters at the end of the 19th century was a Chechen abrek Zelimkhan Gushmazukaev and his comrade-in-arms Ingush abrek Sulom-Beck Sagopshinski.

Together they built up small units which constantly harassed Russian military convoys, government mints, and government post-service, mainly in Ingushetia and Chechnya.

Ingush aul Kek was completely burned when the Ingush refused to hand over Zelimkhan. Zelimkhan was killed at the beginning of the 20th century.

The war between Nakh tribes and Russia resurfaced during the times of the Russian Revolution , which saw the Nakh struggle against Anton Denikin and later against the Soviet Union.

The capital of the new state was moved to Temir-Khan-Shura Dagestan. The second prime minister elected was Vassan-Girey Dzhabagiev , an Ingush statesman, who also was the author of the constitution of the republic in , and in he was re-elected for the third term.

In the Russians attacked and occupied the country and forcefully absorbed it into the Soviet state. The Caucasian war for independence restarted, and the government went into exile.

In the s Chechnya was flooded with many Ukrainians fleeing the Holodomor , a man-made famine. Those who could not be moved were shot. The deportation was supposedly justified by the materials prepared by notorious NKVD officer Bogdan Kobulov accusing Chechens and Ingush in a mass conspiracy preparing rebellion and providing assistance to the German forces.

Many of the materials were later proved to be fabricated. The Chechens and Ingush were allowed to return to their land after during de-Stalinisation under Nikita Khrushchev [43] when Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was restored but both boundaries and ethnic composition of the territory significantly changed.

There were many predominantly Russian migrants from other parts of the Soviet Union , who often settled in the abandoned family homes of Chechens and Ingushes.

The Russification policies towards Chechens continued after , with Russian language proficiency required in many aspects of life to provide Chechens better opportunities for advancement in the Soviet system.

This declaration was part of the reorganisation of the Soviet Union. This new treaty would have been signed August 22, , which would have transformed 15 republic states into more than It campaigned for the recognition of Chechnya as a separate nation.

This movement was opposed by Boris Yeltsin 's Russian Federation , which argued that Chechnya had not been an independent entity within the Soviet Union—as the Baltic, Central Asian, and other Caucasian States had—but was part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and hence did not have a right under the Soviet constitution to secede.

It also argued that other republics of Russia , such as Tatarstan , would consider seceding from the Russian Federation if Chechnya were granted that right.

Finally, it argued that Chechnya was a major hub in the oil infrastructure of Russia and hence its secession would hurt the country's economy and energy access.

In the ensuing decade, the territory was locked in an ongoing struggle between various factions, usually fighting unconventionally and forgoing the position held by the several successive Russian governments through the current administration.

The First Chechen War took place from to , when Russian forces attempted to regain control over Chechnya, which had declared independence in November Despite overwhelming numerical superiority in men, weaponry, and air support , the Russian forces were unable to establish effective permanent control over the mountainous area due to numerous successful full-scale battles and insurgency raids.

In three months, Russia lost more tanks over 1, tanks in Grozny than during the Battle of Berlin in The Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis in shocked the Russian public and led to international condemnation of the Chechen rebels.

In April the first democratically elected president of Chechnya, Dzhokhar Dudayev , was killed by Russian forces using a booby trap bomb and a missile fired from a warplane after he was located by triangulating the position of a satellite phone he was using.

The widespread demoralisation of the Russian forces in the area and a successful offensive to re-take Grozny by Chechen rebel's forces led by Aslan Maskhadov prompted Russian President Boris Yeltsin to declare a ceasefire in , and sign a peace treaty a year later that saw a withdrawal of Russian forces.

After the war, parliamentary and presidential elections took place in January in Chechnya and brought to power new President Aslan Maskhadov, chief of staff and prime minister in the Chechen coalition government, for a five-year term.

Maskhadov sought to maintain Chechen sovereignty while pressing the Russian government to help rebuild the republic, whose formal economy and infrastructure were virtually destroyed.

Most of these funds were taken by Chechen authorities and divided between favored warlords. Two Russian brigades were permanently stationed in Chechnya.

President Maskhadov started a major campaign against hostage-takers, and on October 25, , Shadid Bargishev, Chechnya's top anti-kidnapping official, was killed in a remote-controlled car bombing.

Bargishev's colleagues then insisted they would not be intimidated by the attack and would go ahead with their offensive.

Political violence and religious extremism, blamed on " Wahhabism ", was rife. In , Grozny authorities declared a state of emergency.

Tensions led to open clashes between the Chechen National Guard and Islamist militants, such as the July confrontation in Gudermes. Much better organized and planned than in the first Chechen War, the Russian armed forces took control of most regions.

The Russian forces used brutal force, killing 60 Chechen civilians during a mop-up operation in Aldy, Chechnya on February 5, After the re-capture of Grozny in February , the Ichkerian regime fell apart.

Chechen rebels continued to fight Russian troops and conduct terrorist attacks. In response to the increasing terrorism, Russia tightened its grip on Chechnya and expanded its anti-terrorist operations throughout the region.

Russia installed a pro-Russian Chechen regime. In , a referendum was held on a constitution that reintegrated Chechnya within Russia but provided limited autonomy.

According to the Chechen government, the referendum passed with In September , separatist rebels occupied a school in the town of Beslan , North Ossetia , demanding recognition of the independence of Chechnya and a Russian withdrawal.

The attack lasted three days, resulting in the deaths of over people, including children. He also vowed to take tougher action against domestic terrorism, including preemptive strikes against Chechen separatists.

Since , Chechnya has been governed by Ramzan Kadyrov. Kadyrov's rule has been characterized by high-level corruption, a poor human rights record, widespread use of torture, and a growing cult of personality.

In April , Russia ended its counter-terrorism operation and pulled out the bulk of its army. The Caucasus Emirate has fully adopted the tenets of a Salafist jihadist group through its strict adherence to the Sunni Hanbali obedience to the literal interpretation of the Quran and the Sunnah.

Situated in the eastern part of the North Caucasus , partially in Eastern Europe , Chechnya is surrounded on nearly all sides by Russian Federal territory.

In the west, it borders North Ossetia and Ingushetia , in the north, Stavropol Krai , in the east, Dagestan, and to the south, Georgia. Its capital is Grozny.

There are no true districts of Chechnya, but many [ who? The main dialects are: Grozny, also known as the Dzhokhar dialect, is the dialect of people who live in and in some towns around Grozny.

Naskhish, a dialect spoken to the northeast of Chechnya. There are other dialects which are believed to define districts, but because these areas are so isolated, not much research has been done on these areas.

According to the Census , the population of the republic is 1,,, [13] up from 1,, recorded in the Census. Other groups include Russians 24,, or 1.

The Armenian community, which used to number around 15, in Grozny alone, has dwindled to a few families. The birth rate was According to some Russian sources, from to tens of thousands of people of non-Chechen ethnicity mostly Russians, Ukrainians, and Armenians left the republic amidst reports of violence and discrimination against the non-Chechen population, as well as widespread lawlessness and ethnic cleansing under the government of Dzhokhar Dudayev.

The languages used in the Republic are Chechen and Russian. Chechen belongs to the Vaynakh or North-central Caucasian language family, which also includes Ingush and Batsb.

Some scholars place it in a wider North Caucasian languages. Note: TFR —12 source. Due to historical importance, many Chechens are Sufis , of either the Qadiri or Naqshbandi orders.

Most of the population follows either the Shafi'i or the Hanafi , [87] schools of jurisprudence, fiqh. The Shafi'i school of jurisprudence has a long tradition among the Chechens, [88] and thus it remains the most practiced.

Following the end of the Soviet Union, there has been an Islamic revival in Chechnya, and in it was estimated that there were mosques, including the Akhmad Kadyrov Mosque in Grozny accommodating 10, worshipers, as well 31 madrasas , including an Islamic university named Kunta-haji and a Center of Islamic Medicine in Grozny which is the largest such institution in Europe.

On 19 January , 12 days after the Charlie Hebdo shooting , a march took place in Grozny against the publication of caricatures of the prophet Mohammed.

The once-strong Russian minority in Chechnya, mostly Terek Cossacks and estimated as numbering approximately 25, in , are predominantly Russian Orthodox , although presently only one church exists in Grozny.

In August , Archbishop Zosima of Vladikavkaz and Makhachkala performed the first mass baptism ceremony in the history of the Chechen Republic in the Terek River of Naursky District in which 35 citizens of Naursky and Shelkovsky districts were converted to Orthodoxy.

Since , the Chechen Republic has had many legal, military, and civil conflicts involving separatist movements and pro-Russian authorities.

Today, Chechnya is a relatively stable federal republic , although there is still some separatist movement activity. Its regional constitution entered into effect on April 2, , after an all-Chechen referendum was held on March 23, Some Chechens were controlled by regional teips , or clans, despite the existence of pro- and anti-Russian political structures.

Incidents of ballot stuffing and voter intimidation by Russian soldiers and the exclusion of separatist parties from the polls were subsequently reported by the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe OSCE monitors.

On May 9, , Kadyrov was assassinated in Grozny football stadium by a landmine explosion that was planted beneath a VIP stage and detonated during a parade, and Sergey Abramov was appointed to the position of acting prime minister after the incident.

However, since Ramzan Kadyrov son of Akhmad Kadyrov has been the caretaker prime minister, and in was appointed as the new president. Many allege he is the wealthiest and most powerful man in the republic, with control over a large private militia referred to as the Kadyrovtsy.

The militia, which began as his father's security force, has been accused of killings and kidnappings by human rights organisations such as Human Rights Watch.

In , the US government financed American organization Freedom House included Chechnya in the "Worst of the Worst" list of most repressive societies in the world, together with Burma , North Korea , Tibet , and others.

In addition to the Russian regional government, there was a separatist Ichkeria government that was not recognized by any state although members have been given political asylum in European and Arab countries, as well as the United States.

Ichkeria was a member of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation between and This recognition ceased with the fall of the Taliban in Aslan Maskhadov had been elected in an internationally monitored election in for 4 years, which took place after signing a peace agreement with Russia.

In he issued a decree prolonging his office for one additional year; he was unable to participate in the presidential election since separatist parties were barred by the Russian government, and Maskhadov faced accusations of terrorist offenses in Russia.

Maskhadov left Grozny and moved to the separatist-controlled areas of the south at the onset of the Second Chechen War.

Maskhadov was unable to influence a number of warlords who retain effective control over Chechen territory, and his power was diminished as a result.

Russian forces killed Maskhadov on March 8, , and the assassination of Maskhadov was widely criticized since it left no legitimate Chechen separatist leader with whom to conduct peace talks.

Akhmed Zakayev , Deputy Prime Minister and a Foreign Minister under Maskhadov, was appointed shortly after the election and is currently living under asylum in England.

He and others chose Abdul Khalim Saidullayev , a relatively unknown Islamic judge who was previously the host of an Islamic program on Chechen television, to replace Maskhadov following his death.

The successor of Saidullayev became Doku Umarov. On October 31, , Umarov abolished the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and its presidency and in its place proclaimed the Caucasus Emirate with himself as its Emir.

The Internal Displacement Monitoring Center reports that after hundreds of thousands of ethnic Russians and Chechens fled their homes following inter-ethnic and separatist conflicts in Chechnya in and , more than , people still remain displaced in Russia today.

For first- and second-time offenders, the punishment is caning. A third conviction leads to the death penalty, which can be carried out in a number of ways including stoning or beheading.

Human rights groups criticized the conduct of the parliamentary elections as unfairly influenced by the central Russian government and military.

In Human Rights Watch reported that pro-Russian Chechen forces under the command of Ramzan Kadyrov , as well as federal police personnel, used torture to get information about separatist forces.

And there is little chance that your torturer will be held accountable", said Holly Cartner, Director of the Europe and Central Asia division of the Human Rights Watch.

The accusations were sparked by the assassination in Austria of a former Chechen rebel who had gained access to Kadyrov's inner circle, year-old Umar Israilov.

Among the most prominent features was that those abused had no method of redress against assaults, ranging from kidnapping to torture, while those responsible were never held accountable.

This led to the conclusion that Chechnya was being ruled without law, being run into further devastating destabilization.

She doesn't [have the right to criticize me]. With us [in Chechen society], a wife is a housewife. A woman should know her place. A woman should give her love to us [men] She would be [man's] property.

And the man is the owner. Here, if a woman does not behave properly, her husband, father, and brother are responsible.

According to our tradition, if a woman fools around, her family members kill her That's how it happens, a brother kills his sister or a husband kills his wife As a president, I cannot allow for them to kill.

So, let women not wear shorts On July 9, , Russian newspaper Novaya Gazeta reported that a number of people were subject to an extrajudicial execution on the night of January 26, It published 27 names of the people known to be dead, but stressed that the list is "not all [of those killed]"; the newspaper asserted that 50 people may have been killed in the execution.

In , it was reported by Novaya Gazeta and human rights groups that Chechen authorities had allegedly set up concentration camps, one of which is in Argun , where gay men are interrogated and subjected to physical violence.

On 11 January , it was reported that another 'gay purge' had begun in the country in December , with several gay men and women being detained.

During the war, the Chechen economy fell apart. The economic situation in Chechnya has improved considerably since According to the New York Times , major efforts to rebuild Grozny have been made, and improvements in the political situation have led some officials to consider setting up a tourism industry, though there are claims that construction workers are being irregularly paid and that poor people have been displaced.

Total revenue of the budget of Chechnya for was Of these, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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