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English Latin. English - Latin. Present participle of kiss. Just touching. The act of giving a kiss. Similar phrases in dictionary English Latin.

Kiss-me-quick-and-go abrotonum. They embraced their fellow soldiers, clung to their necks, begged for parting kisses , and entreated that they might not be deserted, or doomed in a common cause to suffer a different lot.

After an interval of a few days there was a grand display on both sides; on the one, cavalry ranged in squadrons with their national ensigns; on the other, stood the columns of our legions with glittering eagles and standards and images of deities, after the appearance of a temple.

And he went forth to meet him in the mountain of God, and kissed him. Augustine's formulation of original sin after AD was popular among Protestant reformers , such as Martin Luther and John Calvin , who equated original sin with concupiscence or "hurtful desire" , affirming that it persisted even after baptism and completely destroyed freedom to do good.

Before , Augustine said that free will was weakened but not destroyed by original sin. The Jansenist movement, which the Catholic Church declared to be heretical, also maintained that original sin destroyed freedom of will.

Anselm says: "The sin of Adam was one thing but the sin of children at their birth is quite another, the former was the cause, the latter is the effect.

The effects of Adam's sin according to the Catholic Encyclopedia are:. Eastern Catholics and Eastern Christianity, in general, do not have the same theology of the Fall and original sin as Latin Catholics.

Some warn against taking Genesis 3 too literally. They take into account that "God had the church in mind before the foundation of the world" as in Ephesians This remains obscure.

Evil remains mysterious. It has been presented in great images, as does chapter 3 of Genesis, with the vision of two trees, of the serpent, of sinful man.

The Immaculate Conception is the conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary free from original sin by virtue of the merits of her son Jesus. Although the belief has been widely held since Late Antiquity , the doctrine was dogmatically defined in the Catholic Church only in when Pope Pius IX declared it ex cathedra , i.

It is admitted that the doctrine as defined by Pius IX was not explicitly noted before the 12th century.

It is also agreed that "no direct or categorical and stringent proof of the dogma can be brought forward from Scripture ". Their expressions on the subject of the sinlessness of Mary are, it is pointed out, so ample and so absolute that they must be taken to include original sin as well as actual.

Thus in the first five centuries, such epithets as "in every respect holy", "in all things unstained", "super-innocent", and "singularly holy" are applied to her; she is compared to Eve before the fall, as ancestress of a redeemed people; she is "the earth before it was accursed".

The well-known words of St. Augustine d. But his argument is that all men are sinners; that they are so through original depravity; that this original depravity may be overcome by the grace of God, and he adds that he does not know but that Mary may have had sufficient grace to overcome sin "of every sort" omni ex parte.

Bernard of Clairvaux in the 12th century raised the question of the Immaculate Conception. A feast of the Conception of the Blessed Virgin had already begun to be celebrated in some churches of the West.

St Bernard blames the canons of the metropolitan church of Lyon for instituting such a festival without the permission of the Holy See. In doing so, he takes occasion to repudiate altogether the view that the conception of Mary was sinless, calling it a "novelty".

Some doubt, however, whether he was using the term "conception" in the same sense in which it is used in the definition of Pope Pius IX.

Bernard would seem to have been speaking of conception in the active sense of the mother's cooperation, for in his argument he says: "How can there be absence of sin where there is concupiscence libido?

Yet, Bernard also decries those who support the feast for trying to "add to the glories of Mary", which proves he was indeed talking about Mary.

The theological underpinnings of Immaculate Conception had been the subject of debate during the Middle Ages with opposition provided by figures such as Saint Thomas Aquinas , a Dominican.

Pope Sixtus IV , a Franciscan, had tried to pacify the situation by forbidding either side to criticize the other, and placed the feast of the Immaculate Conception on the Roman Calendar in , but Pope Pius V , a Dominican, changed it to the feast of the Conception of Mary.

Clement XI made the feast universal in , but still did not call it the feast of the Immaculate Conception. The Blessed John Duns Scotus d.

The arguments of Scotus, combined with a better acquaintance with the language of the early Fathers, gradually prevailed in the schools of the Western Church.

In the university of Paris strongly condemned the opposite view. Scotus's arguments remained controversial, however, particularly among the Dominicans, who were willing enough to celebrate Mary's sanctificatio being made free from sin but, following the Dominican Thomas Aquinas' arguments, continued to insist that her sanctification could not have occurred until after her conception.

Scotus's argument appears in Pope Pius IX 's declaration of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, "at the first moment of Her conception, Mary was preserved free from the stain of original sin, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ.

We declare, pronounce, and define that the doctrine which holds that the most Blessed Virgin Mary, in the first instance of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege granted by Almighty God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved free from all stain of original sin, is a doctrine revealed by God and therefore to be believed firmly and constantly by all the faithful.

Quapropter si qui secus ac a Nobis. Pope Pius IX explicitly affirmed that Mary was redeemed in a manner more sublime. He stated that Mary, rather than being cleansed after sin, was completely prevented from contracting original sin in view of the foreseen merits of Jesus Christ, the Savior of the human race.

Since the Second Council of Orange against semi-pelagianism , the Catholic Church has taught that even had man never sinned in the Garden of Eden and was sinless, he would still require God's grace to remain sinless.

The definition concerns original sin only, and it makes no declaration about the Church's belief that the Blessed Virgin was sinless in the sense of freedom from actual or personal sin.

Eastern Catholics and Eastern Christianity, in general, believe that Mary was sinless but they do not have the same theology of the Fall and original sin as Latin Catholics.

The Assumption of Mary into Heaven often shortened to the Assumption is the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life.

By the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and by our own authority, we pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory.

In Pius XII's dogmatic statement, the phrase "having completed the course of her earthly life", leaves open the question of whether the Virgin Mary died before her assumption or not.

Mary's assumption is said to have been a divine gift to her as the "Mother of God". Ludwig Ott's view is that, as Mary completed her life as a shining example to the human race, the perspective of the gift of assumption is offered to the whole human race.

Ludwig Ott writes in his book Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma that "the fact of her death is almost generally accepted by the Fathers and Theologians, and is expressly affirmed in the Liturgy of the Church", to which he adds a number of helpful citations.

He concludes: "for Mary, death, in consequence of her freedom from original sin and from personal sin, was not a consequence of punishment of sin.

However, it seems fitting that Mary's body, which was by nature mortal, should be, in conformity with that of her Divine Son , subject to the general law of death".

The point of her bodily death has not been infallibly defined by any pope. Many Catholics believe that she did not die at all, but was assumed directly into Heaven.

The dogmatic definition within the Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus which, according to Roman Catholic dogma, infallibly proclaims the doctrine of the Assumption leaves open the question of whether, in connection with her departure, Mary underwent bodily death.

It does not dogmatically define the point one way or the other, as shown by the words "having completed the course of her earthly life".

A large number of them pointed to the Book of Genesis as scriptural support for the dogma. The Western Feast of the Assumption is celebrated on 15 August, and the Eastern Orthodox and Greek Catholics celebrate the Dormition of the Mother of God or Dormition of the Theotokos , the falling asleep of the Mother of God on the same date, preceded by a day fast period.

Eastern Christians believe that Mary died a natural death, that her soul was received by Christ upon death, and that her body was resurrected on the third day after her death and that she was taken up into heaven bodily in anticipation of the general resurrection.

Her tomb was found empty on the third day. Orthodox tradition is clear and unwavering in regard to the central point [of the Dormition]: the Holy Virgin underwent, as did her Son, a physical death, but her body — like His — was afterwards raised from the dead and she was taken up into heaven, in her body as well as in her soul.

She has passed beyond death and judgement, and lives wholly in the Age to Come. The Resurrection of the Body That does not mean, however, that she is dissociated from the rest of humanity and placed in a wholly different category: for we all hope to share one day in that same glory of the Resurrection of the Body which she enjoys even now.

Many Catholics also believe that Mary first died before being assumed, but they believe that she was miraculously resurrected before being assumed.

Others believe she was assumed bodily into Heaven without first dying. Many theologians note by way of comparison that in the Catholic Church, the Assumption is dogmatically defined, while in the Eastern Orthodox tradition, the Dormition is less dogmatically than liturgically and mystically defined.

Such differences spring from a larger pattern in the two traditions, wherein Catholic teachings are often dogmatically and authoritatively defined — in part because of the more centralized structure of the Catholic Church — while in Eastern Orthodoxy, many doctrines are less authoritative.

Ancient of Days is a name for God that appears in the Book of Daniel. Daniel St Thomas Aquinas recalls that some bring forward the objection that the Ancient of Days matches the person of the Father, without necessarily agreeing with this statement himself.

By the twelfth century depictions of a figure of God the Father, essentially based on the Ancient of Days in the Book of Daniel , had started to appear in French manuscripts and in stained glass church windows in England.

In the 14th century the illustrated Naples Bible had a depiction of God the Father in the Burning bush.

By the 15th century, the Rohan Book of Hours included depictions of God the Father in human form or anthropomorphic imagery, and by the time of the Renaissance artistic representations of God the Father were freely used in the Western Church.

Artistic depictions of God the Father were uncontroversial in Catholic art thereafter, but less common depictions of the Trinity were condemned.

In Pope Benedict XIV explicitly supported the Throne of Mercy depiction, referring to the "Ancient of Days", but in it was still necessary for Pope Pius VI to issue a papal bull condemning the decision of an Italian church council to remove all images of the Trinity from churches.

The depiction remains rare and often controversial in Eastern Orthodox art. Most of the eastern church fathers who comment on the passage in Daniel —10, 13—14 interpreted the elderly figure as a prophetic revelation of the son before his physical incarnation.

This iconography emerged in the 6th century, mostly in the Eastern Empire with elderly images, although usually not properly or specifically identified as "the Ancient of Days".

The images in these manuscripts included the inscription "Jesus Christ, Ancient of Days," confirming that this was a way to identify Christ as pre-eternal with the God the Father.

From the s, the issue of sexual abuse of minors by Western Catholic clergy and other church members has become the subject of civil litigation, criminal prosecution, media coverage and public debate in countries around the world.

The Western Catholic Church has been criticised for its handling of abuse complaints when it became known that some bishops had shielded accused priests, transferring them to other pastoral assignments where some continued to commit sexual offences.

In response to the scandal, formal procedures have been established to help prevent abuse, encourage the reporting of any abuse that occurs, and to handle such reports promptly, although groups representing victims have disputed their effectiveness.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Autonomous particular church composed of most of the Western-world Catholics.

For the music genre, see Latin Christian music. Protestantism 16th century Independent Catholicism 19th century Sedevacantism 20th century. Latin cross and Byzantine Patriarchal cross.

Further information: Catholic liturgical rites and particular churches. Further information: Holy See. Main article: Code of Canon Law.

Ius vigens current law. Legal history. Jus antiquum c. Oriental law. Liturgical law. Sacramental law.

Matrimonial law. Supreme authority, particular churches , and canonical structures. Temporal goods property. Law of persons. Person canon law Formal act of defection from the Catholic Church Canonical age Emancipation Exemption Clerics Secular clergy Regular clergy Obligation of celibacy Clerics and public office Incardination and excardination Laicization dispensation Canonical faculties Office Canonical provision Canonical election Juridic and physical persons Jus patronatus Associations of the faithful Consecrated life.

Canonical documents. Penal law. Canon Canon Censure canon law De delictis gravioribus Complicit absolution Crimen sollicitationis Excommunication List of excommunicable offences in the Catholic Church List of people excommunicated by the Catholic Church List of excommunicated cardinals Interdict Internal forum Laicization penal Latae sententiae Lifetime of prayer and penance Canonical admonitions Ecclesiastical prison.

Procedural law. Legal practice and scholarship. Law of consecrated life. Further information: Five Ways Aquinas.

For detailed analysis of the five proofs, see Existence of God. For the original text of the five proofs, see Quinque viae. Further information: Palamism , Hesychast controversy , Hesychasm , Barlaam of Seminara , and Essence—energies distinction.

Further information: History of the Filioque controversy. The Father. The Son. The Holy Spirit. Further information: History of purgatory and Three states of the Church.

See also: Mary Magdalene. Further information: Original sin. See also: Hamartiology. See also: Scotism and Duns Scotus.

See also: John of Damascus. See also: God the Father in Western art. Main article: Catholic Church sexual abuse cases.

Catholicism portal. London: Levey, Rossen and Franklin. Lopez 26 March Retrieved 11 April Retrieved 1 April Archived from the original on 6 July In Herbermann, Charles ed.

Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 November Augustine the Theologian.

The Spirit of Early Christian Thought. New Haven: Yale University Press. New advent. Gordon Encyclopedia of Catholicism. Facts on File Encyclopedia of World Religions.

University of California Press. In Fitzgerald, Allan D ed. Augustine Through the Ages: An Encyclopedia. Wm B Eerdmans. Christian Classics Ethereal Library.

Retrieved 21 November The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 21 December Retrieved The Filioque: History of a Doctrinal Controversy.

Stolcholm University Press. Orthodox Tradition. Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 28 June Penguin Books.

Science in the Middle Ages. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. The foundations of modern science in the Middle Ages: their religious, institutional and intellectual contexts.

A companion to Bonaventure. Fifty key medieval thinkers. Noone, eds. A companion to philosophy in the middle ages.

Vaughan, Roger Bede The Life and Labours of St. Thomas of Aquin: Vol. Saint Thomas Aquinas. Tolomeo da Lucca writes in Historia Ecclesiastica : "This man is supreme among modern teachers of philosophy and theology, and indeed in every subject.

And such is the common view and opinion, so that nowadays in the University of Paris they call him the Doctor Communis because of the outstanding clarity of his teaching.

Zalta, Edward N. Retrieved 26 October Summa Theologica. Quia utilitas quae alteri accrescit non est ex vendente, sed ex conditione ementis, nullus autem debet vendere alteri quod non est suum.

Et primo, de fraudulentia quae committitur in emptionibus et venditionibus Archived from the original on 31 August Retrieved 4 November Retrieved on 12 September Palamas taught that by asceticism one could attain a corporal, i.

He also held that in God there was a real distinction between the Divine Essence and Its attributes, and he identified grace as one of the Divine propria making it something uncreated and infinite.

These monstrous errors were denounced by the Calabrian Barlaam, by Nicephorus Gregoras, and by Acthyndinus. The conflict began in and ended only in , with the solemn canonization of Palamas and the official recognition of his heresies.

He was declared the 'holy doctor' and 'one of the greatest among the Fathers of the Church', and his writings were proclaimed 'the infallible guide of the Christian Faith'.

Christensen, Jeffery A. Commission on Theology In Cook, James I. Historical series of the Reformed Church in America. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Irenaeus, Against Heresies 5. Adolph Harnack, History of Dogma vol. Griffiths In Jerry L. Walls ed. The Oxford Handbook of Eschatology. Eschatology: Death and Eternal Life.

CUA Press. Theological Studies. Mary Magdalen , in The Catholic Encyclopedia. The making of the Magdalen: preaching and popular devotion in the later Middle Ages.

Princeton University Press. Retrieved 24 January The Cambridge Dictionary of Christianity. Daniel Patte. New York: Cambridge University Press, , The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church 3rd rev.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. Sin, Original and Personal — Church of the Nazarene. Retrieved 13 October Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.

VI, cap. Retrieved 1 January Catholic News Agency. In Chisholm, Hugh ed. Cambridge University Press. Volume: Issue: 1, Kenan B.

Osborne, O. Bonaventure, New York , Franklin H. Littell ed. Newman J. Even if human nature remained in that integrity in which it was formed, it would in no way save itself without the help of its Creator; therefore, since without the grace of God it cannot guard the health which it received, how without the grace of God will it be able to recover what it has lost?

Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 3 November Miravalle, pp. Journal of Early Christian Studies.

BBC News. Retrieved 28 October Holy See Press Office. Retrieved 30 March Latin Church. Latin Church, also known as the Western Church , the largest particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church , and the original and still major part of Western Christianity.

Ecclesiastical Latin. Mass of the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church. Vesting prayers Asperges me Vidi aquam in Eastertide Processional hymn.

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A person is a member of or belongs to a particular church. A person also inherits, or "is of", [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] a particular patrimony or rite.

Since the rite has liturgical, theological, spiritual and disciplinary elements, a person is also to worship, to be catechized, to pray and to be governed according to a particular rite.

Particular churches that inherit and perpetuate a particular patrimony are identified by the metonymy "church" or "rite".

Accordingly, "rite" has been defined as "a division of the Christian church using a distinctive liturgy", [11] or simply as "a Christian Church".

Historically, the leadership of the Latin Church i. Due to geographic and cultural considerations, the latter patriarchates developed into churches with distinct Eastern Christian traditions.

The majority of Eastern Christian churches broke full communion with the bishop of Rome and the Latin Church, following various theological and leadership disputes in the centuries following the Council of Chalcedon in AD Until , the Pope claimed the title " Patriarch of the West "; Pope Benedict XVI lifted this title for ecumenical purposes while continuing to exercise a direct patriarchal role over the Latin Church.

The Latin Church is notable within Western Christianity for its sacred tradition and seven sacraments. In the Catholic Church, in addition to the Latin Church directly headed by the Pope as Latin patriarch, there are 23 Eastern Catholic Churches , self-governing particular churches sui iuris with their own hierarchies.

These churches trace their origins to the other four patriarchates of the ancient pentarchy , but either never historically broke full communion or returned to it with the Papacy at some time.

These differ from each other in liturgical rite ceremonies, vestments, chants, language , devotional traditions, theology , canon law , and clergy , but all maintain the same faith, and all see full communion with the Pope as Bishop of Rome as essential to being Catholic as well as part of the one true church as defined by the Four Marks of the Church in Catholic ecclesiology.

The approximately 16 million Eastern Catholics represent a minority of Christians in communion with the Pope, compared to more than 1 billion Latin Catholics.

Additionally, there are roughly million Eastern Orthodox and 86 million Oriental Orthodox around the world that are not in union with Rome.

Unlike the Latin Church, the Pope does not exercise a direct patriarchal role over the Eastern Catholic churches and their faithful, instead encouraging their internal hierarchies separate from that of the Latin Church, analogous to the traditions shared with the corresponding Eastern Christian churches in Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy.

Several forms of the Latin rite have always existed, and were only slowly withdrawn, as a result of the coming together of the different parts of Europe.

Before the Council there existed, side by side with the Roman rite , the Ambrosian rite , the Mozarabic rite of Toledo , the rite of Braga , the Carthusian rite , the Carmelite rite, and best known of all, the Dominican rite, and perhaps still other rites of which I am not aware.

The 23 Eastern Catholic Churches employ five different families of liturgical rites. The Latin liturgical rites, like the Armenian, are used only in a single sui iuris particular church.

Particular churches. Philosophy, theology, and fundamental theory of canon law. Juridic and physical persons.

Associations of the faithful. Institute of consecrated life. Society of apostolic life. In the Latin Church, the norm for administration of confirmation is that, except when in danger of death, the person to be confirmed should "have the use of reason, be suitably instructed, properly disposed, and able to renew the baptismal promises", [21] and "the administration of the Most Holy Eucharist to children requires that they have sufficient knowledge and careful preparation so that they understand the mystery of Christ according to their capacity and are able to receive the body of Christ with faith and devotion.

Celibacy , as a consequence of the duty to observe perfect continence, is obligatory for priests in the Latin Church. At the present time, Bishops in the Latin Church are generally appointed by the Pope after hearing the advice of the various dicasteries of the Roman Curia , specifically the Congregation for Bishops , the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples for countries in its care , the Section for Relations with States of the Secretariat of State for appointments that require the consent or prior notification of civil governments , and the Congregation for the Oriental Churches in the areas in its charge, even for the appointment of Latin bishops.

The Congregations generally work from a "terna" or list of three names advanced to them by the local church, most often through the Apostolic Nuncio or the Cathedral Chapter in those places where the Chapter retains the right to nominate bishops.

He helped shape Latin Christianity , and is viewed as one of the most important Church Fathers in the Latin Church for his writings in the Patristic Period.

In his youth he was drawn to Manichaeism and later to neoplatonism. After his baptism and conversion in , Augustine developed his own approach to philosophy and theology, accommodating a variety of methods and perspectives.

His thoughts profoundly influenced the medieval worldview. The segment of the Church that adhered to the concept of the Trinity as defined by the Council of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople [29] closely identified with Augustine's On the Trinity.

Christianity, he argued, should be concerned with the mystical, heavenly city, the New Jerusalem , rather than with earthly politics.

The City of God presents human history as a conflict between what Augustine calls the Earthly City often colloquially referred to as the City of Man, but never by Augustine and the City of God, a conflict that is destined to end in victory for the latter.

The City of God is marked by people who forego earthly pleasure to dedicate themselves to the eternal truths of God, now revealed fully in the Christian faith.

The Earthly City, on the other hand, consists of people who have immersed themselves in the cares and pleasures of the present, passing world.

For Augustine, the Logos "took on flesh" in Christ, in whom the logos was present as in no other man. Like other Church Fathers such as Athenagoras , [35] Tertullian , [36] Clement of Alexandria and Basil of Caesarea , [37] Augustine "vigorously condemned the practice of induced abortion ", and although he disapproved of an abortion during any stage of pregnancy, he made a distinction between early abortions and later ones.

Augustine also used the term " Catholic " to distinguish the " true " church from heretical groups:. In the Catholic Church, there are many other things which most justly keep me in her bosom.

The consent of peoples and nations keeps me in the Church; so does her authority, inaugurated by miracles, nourished by hope, enlarged by love, established by age.

The succession of priests keeps me, beginning from the very seat of the Apostle Peter , to whom the Lord, after His resurrection, gave it in charge to feed His sheep Jn —19 , down to the present episcopate.

And so, lastly, does the very name of Catholic, which, not without reason, amid so many heresies, the Church has thus retained; so that, though all heretics wish to be called Catholics, yet when a stranger asks where the Catholic Church meets, no heretic will venture to point to his own chapel or house.

Such then in number and importance are the precious ties belonging to the Christian name which keep a believer in the Catholic Church, as it is right they should.

With you, there is none of these things to attract or keep me. No one shall move me from the faith which binds my mind with ties so many and so strong to the Christian religion.

For my part, I should not believe the gospel except as moved by the authority of the Catholic Church. In both his philosophical and theological reasoning, Augustine was greatly influenced by Stoicism , Platonism and Neoplatonism , particularly by the work of Plotinus , author of the Enneads , probably through the mediation of Porphyry and Victorinus as Pierre Hadot has argued.

Although he later abandoned Neoplatonism, some ideas are still visible in his early writings. He was also influenced by the works of Virgil known for his teaching on language , and Cicero known for his teaching on argument.

In the East, his teachings are more disputed, and were notably attacked by John Romanides. Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics "scholastics", or "schoolmen" of medieval universities in Europe from about to , The 13th and early 14th centuries are generally seen as the high period of scholasticism.

The early 13th century witnessed the culmination of the recovery of Greek philosophy. Schools of translation grew up in Italy and Sicily, and eventually in the rest of Europe.

Powerful Norman kings gathered men of knowledge from Italy and other areas into their courts as a sign of their prestige. Edward Grant writes: "Not only was the structure of the Arabic language radically different from that of Latin, but some Arabic versions had been derived from earlier Syriac translations and were thus twice removed from the original Greek text.

Word-for-word translations of such Arabic texts could produce tortured readings. By contrast, the structural closeness of Latin to Greek permitted literal, but intelligible, word-for-word translations.

Universities developed in the large cities of Europe during this period, and rival clerical orders within the church began to battle for political and intellectual control over these centers of educational life.

The two main orders founded in this period were the Franciscans and the Dominicans. The Franciscans were founded by Francis of Assisi in Their leader in the middle of the century was Bonaventure , a traditionalist who defended the theology of Augustine and the philosophy of Plato , incorporating only a little of Aristotle in with the more neoplatonist elements.

Following Anselm, Bonaventure supposed that reason can only discover truth when philosophy is illuminated by religious faith.

Saint Thomas Aquinas , [56] [57] an Italian Dominican friar , philosopher and priest , was immensely influential in the tradition of scholasticism, within which he is also known as the Doctor Angelicus and the Doctor Communis.

Aquinas emphasized that " Synderesis is said to be the law of our mind, because it is a habit containing the precepts of the natural law, which are the first principles of human actions.

According to Aquinas "…all acts of virtue are prescribed by the natural law, since each one's reason naturally dictates to him to act virtuously.

But if we speak of virtuous acts, considered in themselves, i. Thomas defined the four cardinal virtues as prudence , temperance , justice , and fortitude.

The cardinal virtues are natural and revealed in nature, and they are binding on everyone. There are, however, three theological virtues : faith , hope , and charity.

Thomas also describes the virtues as imperfect incomplete and perfect complete virtues. A perfect virtue is any virtue with charity, which completes a cardinal virtue.

A non-Christian can display courage, but it would be courage with temperance. A Christian would display courage with charity.

These are somewhat supernatural and are distinct from other virtues in their object, namely, God:. Now the object of the theological virtues is God Himself, Who is the last end of all, as surpassing the knowledge of our reason.

On the other hand, the object of the intellectual and moral virtues is something comprehensible to human reason. Wherefore the theological virtues are specifically distinct from the moral and intellectual virtues.

Thomas Aquinas wrote: "[Greed] is a sin against God, just as all mortal sins, in as much as man condemns things eternal for the sake of temporal things.

Aquinas also contributed to economic thought as an aspect of ethics and justice. He dealt with the concept of a just price , normally its market price or a regulated price sufficient to cover seller costs of production.

He argued it was immoral for sellers to raise their prices simply because buyers were in pressing need for a product.

Aquinas later expanded his argument to oppose any unfair earnings made in trade, basing the argument on the Golden Rule. The Christian should "do unto others as you would have them do unto you", meaning he should trade value for value.

Aquinas believed that it was specifically immoral to raise prices because a particular buyer had an urgent need for what was being sold and could be persuaded to pay a higher price because of local conditions:.

Aquinas would therefore condemn practices such as raising the price of building supplies in the wake of a natural disaster.

Increased demand caused by the destruction of existing buildings does not add to a seller's costs, so to take advantage of buyers' increased willingness to pay constituted a species of fraud in Aquinas's view.

Thomas believed that the existence of God is self-evident in itself, but not to us. Now because we do not know the essence of God, the proposition is not self-evident to us; but needs to be demonstrated by things that are more known to us, though less known in their nature — namely, by effects.

Thomas believed that the existence of God can be demonstrated. Briefly in the Summa theologiae and more extensively in the Summa contra Gentiles , he considered in great detail five arguments for the existence of God, widely known as the quinque viae Five Ways.

Concerning the nature of God, Thomas felt the best approach, commonly called the via negativa , is to consider what God is not. This led him to propose five statements about the divine qualities:.

Aquinas shifted Scholasticism away from neoplatonism and towards Aristotle. The ensuing school of thought, through its influence on Latin Christianity and the ethics of the Catholic school, is one of the most influential philosophies of all time, also significant due to the number of people living by its teachings.

In theology, his Summa Theologica is one of the most influential documents in medieval theology and continued into the 20th century to be the central point of reference for the philosophy and theology of Latin Christianity.

In the encyclical Doctoris Angelici [76] Pope Pius X cautioned that the teachings of the Church cannot be understood without the basic philosophical underpinnings of Aquinas' major theses:.

The capital theses in the philosophy of St. Thomas are not to be placed in the category of opinions capable of being debated one way or another, but are to be considered as the foundations upon which the whole science of natural and divine things is based; if such principles are once removed or in any way impaired, it must necessarily follow that students of the sacred sciences will ultimately fail to perceive so much as the meaning of the words in which the dogmas of divine revelation are proposed by the magistracy of the Church.

Actus purus is the absolute perfection of God. According to Scholasticism, created beings have potentiality — that is not actuality, imperfections as well as perfection.

Only God is simultaneously all that He can be, infinitely real and infinitely perfect: 'I am who I am' Exodus His attributes or His operations are really identical with His essence , and His essence necessitates His existence.

Later, the Eastern Orthodox ascetic and archbishop of Thessaloniki, Saint Gregory Palamas argued in defense of hesychast spirituality, the uncreated character of the light of the Transfiguration , and the distinction between God's essence and energies.

His teaching unfolded over the course of three major controversies, 1 with the Italo-Greek Barlaam between and , 2 with the monk Gregory Akindynos between and , and 3 with the philosopher Gregoras , from to His theological contributions are sometimes referred to as Palamism , and his followers as Palamites.

Historically Latin Christianity has tended to reject Palamism, especially the essence-energies distinction, some times characterizing it as a heretical introduction of an unacceptable division in the Trinity and suggestive of polytheism.

The rejection of Palamism by the West and by those in the East who favoured union with the West the "Latinophrones" , actually contributed to its acceptance in the East, according to Martin Jugie, who adds: "Very soon Latinism and Antipalamism, in the minds of many, would come to be seen as one and the same thing".

Filioque is a Latin term added to the original Nicene Creed , and which has been the subject of great controversy between Eastern and Western Christianity.

It is not in the original text of the Creed, attributed to the First Council of Constantinople , the second ecumenical council , which says that the Holy Spirit proceeds "from the Father ", without additions of any kind, such as "and the Son" or "alone".

The phrase Filioque first appears as an anti- Arian [88] [89] interpolation in the Creed at the Third Council of Toledo , at which Visigothic Spain renounced Arianism , accepting Catholic Christianity.

The addition was confirmed by subsequent local councils in Toledo and soon spread throughout the West, not only in Spain but also in the kingdom of the Franks, who had adopted the Catholic faith in , [90] and in England, where the Council of Hatfield imposed it in as a response to Monothelitism.

In the late 6th century, some Latin Churches added the words "and from the Son" Filioque to the description of the procession of the Holy Spirit, in what many Eastern Orthodox Christians have at a later stage argued is a violation of Canon VII of the Council of Ephesus , since the words were not included in the text by either the First Council of Nicaea or that of Constantinople.

Whether that term Filioque is included, as well as how it is translated and understood, can have important implications for how one understands the doctrine of the Trinity , which is central to the majority of Christian churches.

For some, the term implies a serious underestimation of God the Father 's role in the Trinity; for others, denial of what it expresses implies a serious underestimation of the role of God the Son in the Trinity.

The Filioque phrase has been included in the Creed throughout all the Latin Rite except where Greek is used in the liturgy, [94] [94] [95] [95] although it was never adopted by Eastern Catholic Churches.

Perhaps the most peculiar doctrine of Latin Christianity is purgatory , about which Latin Christianity holds that "all who die in God's grace and friendship but still imperfectly purified" undergo the process of purification which the Church calls purgatory, "so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of heaven ".

It has formulated this doctrine by reference to biblical verses that speak of purifying fire 1 Corinthians and 1 Peter and to the mention by Jesus of forgiveness in the age to come Matthew It bases its teaching also on the practice of praying for the dead in use within the Church ever since the Church began and which is mentioned even earlier in 2 Macc The idea of purgatory has roots that date back into antiquity.

A sort of proto-purgatory called the "celestial Hades " appears in the writings of Plato and Heraclides Ponticus and in many other pagan writers.

This concept is distinguished from the Hades of the underworld described in the works of Homer and Hesiod.

In contrast, the celestial Hades was understood as an intermediary place where souls spent an undetermined time after death before either moving on to a higher level of existence or being reincarnated back on earth.

Its exact location varied from author to author. Heraclides of Pontus thought it was in the Milky Way; the Academicians, the Stoics , Cicero, Virgil , Plutarch , the Hermetical writings situated it between the Moon and the Earth or around the Moon; while Numenius and the Latin Neoplatonists thought it was located between the sphere of the fixed stars and the Earth.

Perhaps under the influence of Hellenistic thought, the intermediate state entered Jewish religious thought in the last centuries before Christ.

In Maccabees, we find the practice of prayer for the dead with a view to their after life purification, [] a practice accepted by some Christians.

The same practice appears in other traditions, such as the medieval Chinese Buddhist practice of making offerings on behalf of the dead, who are said to suffer numerous trials.

Specific examples of belief in a purification after death and of the communion of the living with the dead through prayer are found in many of the Church Fathers.

There the wicked suffered a foretaste of their eternal punishments, [] whilst the good experienced various stages and places of bliss wherein "the idea of a kind of purgatory … is quite plainly found," an idea that is representative of a view widely dispersed in antiquity.

Cyprian d. John Chrysostom c. Augustine — , [] among others. Pope Gregory the Great 's Dialogues , written in the late 6th century, evidence a development in the understanding of the afterlife distinctive of the direction that Latin Christendom would take:.

As for certain lesser faults, we must believe that, before the Final Judgment, there is a purifying fire. He who is truth says that whoever utters blasphemy against the Holy Spirit will be pardoned neither in this age nor in the age to come.

From this sentence we understand that certain offenses can be forgiven in this age, but certain others in the age to come.

Some Catholic saints and theologians have had sometimes conflicting ideas about purgatory beyond those adopted by the Catholic Church, reflecting or contributing to the popular image, which includes the notions of purification by actual fire, in a determined place and for a precise length of time.

Paul J. Griffiths notes: "Recent Catholic thought on purgatory typically preserves the essentials of the basic doctrine while also offering second-hand speculative interpretations of these elements.

Rather it is the inwardly necessary process of transformation in which a person becomes capable of Christ, capable of God, and thus capable of unity with the whole communion of saints.

In Theological Studies , John E. Thiel argued that "purgatory virtually disappeared from Catholic belief and practice since Vatican II" because it has been based on "a competitive spirituality, gravitating around the religious vocation of ascetics from the late Middle Ages".

The speculations and popular imaginings that, especially in late medieval times, were common in the Western or Latin Church have not necessarily found acceptance in the eastern Catholic Churches , of which there are 23 in full communion with the Pope.

Some have explicitly rejected the notions of punishment by fire in a particular place that are prominent in the popular picture of purgatory.

The representatives of the Orthodox Church at the Council of Florence argued against these notions, while declaring that they do hold that there is a cleansing after death of the souls of the saved and that these are assisted by the prayers of the living: "If souls depart from this life in faith and charity but marked with some defilements, whether unrepented minor ones or major ones repented of but without having yet borne the fruits of repentance, we believe that within reason they are purified of those faults, but not by some purifying fire and particular punishments in some place.

Accordingly, the agreement, known as the Union of Brest , that formalized the admission of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church into the full communion of the Roman Catholic Church stated: "We shall not debate about purgatory, but we entrust ourselves to the teaching of the Holy Church".

In the medieval Western tradition, Mary of Bethany the sister of Lazarus was identified as Mary Magdalene perhaps in large part because of a homily given by Pope Gregory the Great in which he taught about several women in the New Testament as though they were the same person.

This led to a conflation of Mary of Bethany with Mary Magdalene as well as with another woman besides Mary of Bethany who anointed Jesus , the woman caught in adultery.

Eastern Christianity never adopted this identification. French scholar Victor Saxer dates the identification of Mary Magdalene as a prostitute, and as Mary of Bethany, to a sermon by Pope Gregory the Great on September 21, AD , where he seemed to combine the actions of three women mentioned in the New Testament and also identified an unnamed woman as Mary Magdalene.

In another sermon, Gregory specifically identified Mary Magdalene as the sister of Martha mentioned in Luke Latin Christianity's identification of Mary Magdalene and Mary of Bethany was reflected in the arrangement of the General Roman Calendar until this was altered in , [] reflecting the fact that by then the common interpretation in the Catholic Church was that Mary of Bethany, Mary Magdalene and the sinful woman who anointed the feet of Jesus were three distinct women.

The Catechism of the Catholic Church says:. By his sin Adam , as the first man, lost the original holiness and justice he had received from God, not only for himself but for all humans.

Adam and Eve transmitted to their descendants human nature wounded by their own first sin and hence deprived of original holiness and justice; this deprivation is called "original sin".

As a result of original sin, human nature is weakened in its powers, subject to ignorance, suffering and the domination of death, and inclined to sin this inclination is called "concupiscence".

The concept of original sin was first alluded to in the 2nd century by St Irenaeus , Bishop of Lyon in his controversy with certain dualist Gnostics.

Augustine's formulation of original sin after AD was popular among Protestant reformers , such as Martin Luther and John Calvin , who equated original sin with concupiscence or "hurtful desire" , affirming that it persisted even after baptism and completely destroyed freedom to do good.

Before , Augustine said that free will was weakened but not destroyed by original sin. The Jansenist movement, which the Catholic Church declared to be heretical, also maintained that original sin destroyed freedom of will.

Anselm says: "The sin of Adam was one thing but the sin of children at their birth is quite another, the former was the cause, the latter is the effect.

The effects of Adam's sin according to the Catholic Encyclopedia are:. Eastern Catholics and Eastern Christianity, in general, do not have the same theology of the Fall and original sin as Latin Catholics.

Some warn against taking Genesis 3 too literally. They take into account that "God had the church in mind before the foundation of the world" as in Ephesians This remains obscure.

Evil remains mysterious. It has been presented in great images, as does chapter 3 of Genesis, with the vision of two trees, of the serpent, of sinful man.

The Immaculate Conception is the conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary free from original sin by virtue of the merits of her son Jesus.

Although the belief has been widely held since Late Antiquity , the doctrine was dogmatically defined in the Catholic Church only in when Pope Pius IX declared it ex cathedra , i.

It is admitted that the doctrine as defined by Pius IX was not explicitly noted before the 12th century. It is also agreed that "no direct or categorical and stringent proof of the dogma can be brought forward from Scripture ".

Their expressions on the subject of the sinlessness of Mary are, it is pointed out, so ample and so absolute that they must be taken to include original sin as well as actual.

Thus in the first five centuries, such epithets as "in every respect holy", "in all things unstained", "super-innocent", and "singularly holy" are applied to her; she is compared to Eve before the fall, as ancestress of a redeemed people; she is "the earth before it was accursed".

The well-known words of St. Augustine d. But his argument is that all men are sinners; that they are so through original depravity; that this original depravity may be overcome by the grace of God, and he adds that he does not know but that Mary may have had sufficient grace to overcome sin "of every sort" omni ex parte.

Bernard of Clairvaux in the 12th century raised the question of the Immaculate Conception. A feast of the Conception of the Blessed Virgin had already begun to be celebrated in some churches of the West.

St Bernard blames the canons of the metropolitan church of Lyon for instituting such a festival without the permission of the Holy See.

In doing so, he takes occasion to repudiate altogether the view that the conception of Mary was sinless, calling it a "novelty".

Some doubt, however, whether he was using the term "conception" in the same sense in which it is used in the definition of Pope Pius IX.

Bernard would seem to have been speaking of conception in the active sense of the mother's cooperation, for in his argument he says: "How can there be absence of sin where there is concupiscence libido?

Yet, Bernard also decries those who support the feast for trying to "add to the glories of Mary", which proves he was indeed talking about Mary. The theological underpinnings of Immaculate Conception had been the subject of debate during the Middle Ages with opposition provided by figures such as Saint Thomas Aquinas , a Dominican.

Pope Sixtus IV , a Franciscan, had tried to pacify the situation by forbidding either side to criticize the other, and placed the feast of the Immaculate Conception on the Roman Calendar in , but Pope Pius V , a Dominican, changed it to the feast of the Conception of Mary.

Clement XI made the feast universal in , but still did not call it the feast of the Immaculate Conception. The Blessed John Duns Scotus d.

The arguments of Scotus, combined with a better acquaintance with the language of the early Fathers, gradually prevailed in the schools of the Western Church.

In the university of Paris strongly condemned the opposite view. Scotus's arguments remained controversial, however, particularly among the Dominicans, who were willing enough to celebrate Mary's sanctificatio being made free from sin but, following the Dominican Thomas Aquinas' arguments, continued to insist that her sanctification could not have occurred until after her conception.

Scotus's argument appears in Pope Pius IX 's declaration of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, "at the first moment of Her conception, Mary was preserved free from the stain of original sin, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ.

We declare, pronounce, and define that the doctrine which holds that the most Blessed Virgin Mary, in the first instance of her conception, by a singular grace and privilege granted by Almighty God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved free from all stain of original sin, is a doctrine revealed by God and therefore to be believed firmly and constantly by all the faithful.

Quapropter si qui secus ac a Nobis. Pope Pius IX explicitly affirmed that Mary was redeemed in a manner more sublime.

He stated that Mary, rather than being cleansed after sin, was completely prevented from contracting original sin in view of the foreseen merits of Jesus Christ, the Savior of the human race.

Since the Second Council of Orange against semi-pelagianism , the Catholic Church has taught that even had man never sinned in the Garden of Eden and was sinless, he would still require God's grace to remain sinless.

The definition concerns original sin only, and it makes no declaration about the Church's belief that the Blessed Virgin was sinless in the sense of freedom from actual or personal sin.

Eastern Catholics and Eastern Christianity, in general, believe that Mary was sinless but they do not have the same theology of the Fall and original sin as Latin Catholics.

The Assumption of Mary into Heaven often shortened to the Assumption is the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life.

By the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and by our own authority, we pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory.

In Pius XII's dogmatic statement, the phrase "having completed the course of her earthly life", leaves open the question of whether the Virgin Mary died before her assumption or not.

Mary's assumption is said to have been a divine gift to her as the "Mother of God". Ludwig Ott's view is that, as Mary completed her life as a shining example to the human race, the perspective of the gift of assumption is offered to the whole human race.

Ludwig Ott writes in his book Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma that "the fact of her death is almost generally accepted by the Fathers and Theologians, and is expressly affirmed in the Liturgy of the Church", to which he adds a number of helpful citations.

He concludes: "for Mary, death, in consequence of her freedom from original sin and from personal sin, was not a consequence of punishment of sin.

However, it seems fitting that Mary's body, which was by nature mortal, should be, in conformity with that of her Divine Son , subject to the general law of death".

The point of her bodily death has not been infallibly defined by any pope. Many Catholics believe that she did not die at all, but was assumed directly into Heaven.

The dogmatic definition within the Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus which, according to Roman Catholic dogma, infallibly proclaims the doctrine of the Assumption leaves open the question of whether, in connection with her departure, Mary underwent bodily death.

It does not dogmatically define the point one way or the other, as shown by the words "having completed the course of her earthly life".

A large number of them pointed to the Book of Genesis as scriptural support for the dogma. The Western Feast of the Assumption is celebrated on 15 August, and the Eastern Orthodox and Greek Catholics celebrate the Dormition of the Mother of God or Dormition of the Theotokos , the falling asleep of the Mother of God on the same date, preceded by a day fast period.

Eastern Christians believe that Mary died a natural death, that her soul was received by Christ upon death, and that her body was resurrected on the third day after her death and that she was taken up into heaven bodily in anticipation of the general resurrection.

Her tomb was found empty on the third day. Orthodox tradition is clear and unwavering in regard to the central point [of the Dormition]: the Holy Virgin underwent, as did her Son, a physical death, but her body — like His — was afterwards raised from the dead and she was taken up into heaven, in her body as well as in her soul.

She has passed beyond death and judgement, and lives wholly in the Age to Come. The Resurrection of the Body That does not mean, however, that she is dissociated from the rest of humanity and placed in a wholly different category: for we all hope to share one day in that same glory of the Resurrection of the Body which she enjoys even now.

Many Catholics also believe that Mary first died before being assumed, but they believe that she was miraculously resurrected before being assumed.

Others believe she was assumed bodily into Heaven without first dying. Many theologians note by way of comparison that in the Catholic Church, the Assumption is dogmatically defined, while in the Eastern Orthodox tradition, the Dormition is less dogmatically than liturgically and mystically defined.

Such differences spring from a larger pattern in the two traditions, wherein Catholic teachings are often dogmatically and authoritatively defined — in part because of the more centralized structure of the Catholic Church — while in Eastern Orthodoxy, many doctrines are less authoritative.

Ancient of Days is a name for God that appears in the Book of Daniel. Daniel St Thomas Aquinas recalls that some bring forward the objection that the Ancient of Days matches the person of the Father, without necessarily agreeing with this statement himself.

By the twelfth century depictions of a figure of God the Father, essentially based on the Ancient of Days in the Book of Daniel , had started to appear in French manuscripts and in stained glass church windows in England.

In the 14th century the illustrated Naples Bible had a depiction of God the Father in the Burning bush. By the 15th century, the Rohan Book of Hours included depictions of God the Father in human form or anthropomorphic imagery, and by the time of the Renaissance artistic representations of God the Father were freely used in the Western Church.

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